Air & Water

?.   Return to New Hampshire Geoscience Portal

The Atmosphere is the envelope of air surrounding the Earth or another planet.

Atmospheric Science: The study of the atmosphere – what it’s made of, how it’s structured, and how it affects other Earth’s systems, and how it is in turn affected by them.

•  The Composition and Layers of the Atmosphere (video 9:01)

•  What Causes Auroras? (video 3:28)

•  Temperature Inversions (video 2:20)

•  How a Mirage is Formed (video 2:00)

•  Haloes, Sun Dogs and Sun Pillars (video 1:46)

•  Ever Seen a Fire Rainbow? (video 0:29)

•  Rainbows and Moonbows… (video 2:58)

•  Free Online Books About Meteorology and Atmospheric Science

Double Rainbow in Brentwood, NH     Photo by A. Gerkin 11/28/2020

Meteorology: The study of how the atmosphere works, its processes, patterns and phenomena, usually for the purpose of forecasting the weather.

•  Wind Patterns Around the Globe (video 3:15)

•  How to Predict the Weather by Looking at the Clouds (video 6:56)

Some Cool Cloud videos:

cloud icon    Undulatus Asperitaswhen the clouds look like waves passing overhead (0:17)

cloud icon    Morning Glory Cloudslong cylindrical clouds (1:14)

cloud icon    Mammatus Cloudsthe undersides of  the clouds bubbles downwards (0:38)

cloud icon    Kelvin-Helmholtz Cloudslook like a line of  breaking waves (1:17)

cloud icon    Nacreous Cloudsthe clouds shine like mother-of-pearl (0:23)

cloud icon    Noctilucent Cloudsglow long after the sun has set (1:23)

cloud icon    Lenticular Cloudslike looking up under a contact lens shape (0:37)

cloud icon    Fallstreak Holealso known as a Hole Punch cloud (1:03)

For more, check out the Cloud Appreciation Society!

•  How Does Lightning Work? (video 2:56)

•  What is Ball Lightning? Nobody Knows for Sure (video 18:05)

•  Upwards Lightning is the Rarest (video 2:48)

      world icon  Monitor Lightning Strikes Around the Wolrd

•  Tornado Formation (video 4:11)

•  Hurricane Formation (video 3:13)

•  How Does a Blizzard Form? (video 1:56)

•  How Bad Can a Blizzard Get in New Hampshire? (article)

•  How Does a Blizzard Produce Thundersnow? (video 5:27)

•  How Does Fog Form? (video 1:00)

•  Weather and Climate: Not the Same Thing (video 1:28)

•  Climate Science: What You Need to Know (video 6:19)

•  Why Some People Don’t Beleive Climate Science (video 7:33)

Hydroshere: The total amount of water on a planet. It includes water that is on the surface, underground and in the air.

Hydrology: The study of the movement, distribution and management of water on Earth, including watersheds and water resources.

•  The Water Cycle (video 6:46)

•  What is a Watershed? (video 1:17)

•  The Power of Erosion (video 1:14)

•  How a River is Formed (video 1:06)

•  River Processes Which Shape the Land (video 1:37)

Oceanography: The study of both the biological and the physical properties and phenomena of the sea

•  The Oceans of the Earth (video 2:05)

•  Primer on the Origins of Earth’s Oceans (video 4:34)

•  The Underwater Topography of the Oceans (video 1:51)

•  Map of the World, if you were a Fish

•  Tides, Currents and Waves (video 9:42)

•  El Nino and La Nina (video 1:56)

•  Rivers, Streams and Creeks (article) USGS

•  Free Online Books to Read on Oceanography